Nanotechnology is a new technology created by the creation and use of materials or devices on scales ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). A nanometer is equivalent to a length 50,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. The physical properties expected on the nano scale are very different, so scientists especially admire this field. For example, nanoscale objects exhibit different electromagnetic and optical properties called “quantum constraints”. The Gibbs-Thomson effect, that is, lowering the melting point of a substance, is another phenomenon. Materials science departments of universities around the world work together with physics, mechanical engineering and biochemical engineering laboratories to make breakthroughs in nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is applied to many science and engineering fields. New expansions have been made in fields such as electronics, chemistry and medicine. Obviously, various forms of nanotechnology have the potential to have a significant impact on society. In general, it can be assumed that the application of nanotechnology will be very useful to individuals and organizations. Many of these applications contain new materials that functionally radically differentiate with nanosphere, in which new phenomena are associated with very large surface area volume ratios experienced at these sizes and quantum effects that cannot be seen at larger sizes. Very thin films used in catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires and nanoparticles for optical and magnetic systems are used in cosmetics, drugs and coatings. The industrial products sector, which adopts nanotechnology the most, is the information and communication sector, including electronics and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology and many different aspects of medicines and drug delivery systems, diagnostics and medical technology.
In the field of semiconductor electronics and high speed processing, nanowires and nanotransistors are used by many manufacturers. Self-assembly techniques use atomic force microscopes and scanning tunnel microscopes. By using the so-called “top-down” approach, structures on a nanoscale can be engraved. Billions of transistors using this technology can be collected in a processor. An example of this is the Intel brand. Corporation has announced that it uses transistor prototypes that measure 65, 45, 32 and 22 nanometers.
Nanosal: A measurement of one or more dimensions of 100 nm or less.
Nanoscience: It is the study and manipulation of events in which materials are significantly different in atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales than those on a larger scale.
Nanotechnology: It is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling the shape and size at the nano scale.
Nanomaterial: It is a material that has one or more outer dimensions or internal structures and exhibits new features compared to the same material without nano-scale features.
Nanoparticle: One or more particles are nanoscale.
Nanocomposite: It is a composite in which at least one phase has at least one dimension on the nanometer.
Nano structured: It is a nano with a structure.
Nano production technologies that will support custom manufactured products with functionally critical nanometer scale dimensions are produced using large parallel systems or self-assembly. Current research focuses on nanoscience to discover new materials, new events, new characterization tools, and produce nanodevriz. The future impact of nanotechnology on human civilization is manufacturing. In nanotechnology, the small feature size that limits the application of well-established optical lithography and manipulation techniques causes industrial nano production to pose a serious challenge to our technological advances.
Another important application area is the creation of new polymers using atomic level assembly. For example, carbon nanotubes (layers of materialized carbon atoms) can be synthesized and used in a variety of electronic applications. Nanoparticles can be useful in the catalyst due to the greatly increased surface area where molecular reactions can take place. Nanorobotics can resemble molecular motors (found in living cells) if created. The medical field has made some progress in nanotechnology. Sunspot treatment has been successfully completed using UV blocking materials such as titanium oxide. Nanorobotes can be used effectively to identify and destroy cancerous cells without damaging healthy cells if they are introduced into the bloodstream of cancer patients. Armies can also benefit from nanotechnology.
The Future of Nanotechnology
The idea of manipulating individual atoms and molecules was first mentioned in 1959 by American physicist Richard Feynman. Since then, extensive research has rapidly expanded the field of nanotechnology. Many techniques have been developed to create structures smaller than 100 nm. Productive nanosystems can be widely used for the manufacture of sensitive structures using mechanosynthesis. Nanofactors may become a reality in the future. Nano-scale machines can ultimately change the face of society and bring both positive and negative effects.
Like electricity or preceding computers, nanotechnology will offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every aspect of life. But it will be dual-use as a general-purpose technology, meaning it will have many commercial uses and will also have many military uses – it produces much more powerful weapons and surveillance tools. Therefore, it poses not only wonderful benefit for humanity but also serious risks.
If a potential for a completely new risk is identified, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the nature of the risk, which can be used later if necessary in the risk management process. Risks associated with nanotechnology are considered to be common. It has to be analyzed in this way. Many international organizations (eg Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2005), government bodies in the European Union (European Commission 2004) and National Institutions (eg De Jong et al. 2005, Roszek et al. 2005, US National Science and Technology Council 2004, IEEE 2004 (For example, Nan-Technological Institute 2005, Australian Academy of Sciences 2005, METI 2005, British Royal Society and Royal Academy Engineering), non-governmental organizations (eg LAN-NGLS 2005), institutions learned and societies 2004) and individuals (eg Oberdörster et al. 2005, Donaldson and Stone 2003) published reports on the current nanotechnology situation, and many noted this requirement for this comprehensive risk analysis.