Rocks which contain fossils are called, the depositional feature of a glacier is called, the depositional feature of a glacier is detail here..

There are different substances in different layers of our world. These include rocks, fossils and mines. Each of these substances in different layers has a purpose and is used. We will now find out what they are and look at what they are used for.

Fossils, along with rocks and mines, are found in the earth’s crust. The earth crust consists of different layers and these layers contain different substances. Especially the earth crust has different thickness in different parts of the world. Therefore, along with fossils and mines, rocks are found in different amounts depending on the thickness of the earth’s crust.

 Rocks, Mines and Fossils

 The earth’s crust is made up of rocks and mines and fossils. We will now look at what these are and try to find out.

 Rocks

 Stones and rock fragments consisting of different mineral structures, which have a very large place in nature, are called rocks. Especially rocks are composed of many different stones and rock fragments in our world. Especially when we look around us, we can see many different rocks. Because many different stones and rocks that we witness around us are known as rocks.

 – Coal

 – Marble

 – Annual

 – Limestone

 – Gravel

 – Diamond

 – Granite

 – clay

 – Gold

 Some of these rocks are very valuable. They are used as fuel or in different fields, especially in the world of jewelry. Some have little value, but still have different uses. Rocks have acquired some features during their formation. The structures that give these properties are known as minerals. Therefore, the rocks formed naturally have gained different values ​​with different properties thanks to the minerals.

 Mines

 Mines are very important for people. There are mines used for many purposes and extracted from different parts of the world. Precious stones, rocks and minerals are called Mines. These mines that make up the earth’s crust are of great importance. Among these, some of the major mines are used extensively and in different areas around the world.

  1.  Coal
  2.  Gold
  3.   silver
  4.   Boron
  5.  Diamond
  6.   emerald
  7.   Fuel
  8.  Zinc
  9.  Copper

 Many other such minerals are extracted especially in different parts of our country. Thus, these Mines are used for different purposes. It is used both for fuel purposes and for reinforcing accessories or some materials.

 Although it has economic values, mines are used in many different areas by processing. Iron mine is of great importance especially for many industrial areas. In this regard, it constitutes an important potential from the construction sector to the kitchen world, from electrical electronics to the automotive or aircraft sector. In addition, while using marbles in areas such as kitchen countertops and stairs, aluminum has an importance in the electrical-electronics sector and medicine field together with space.

Fosils

 Fossils are generally the structures of plant and animal remains that lived millions of years ago, petrified between rocks. In general, it is said that the hard parts of plants and animals have come to the present day by changing different natural ways. Fossils give detailed information about plants and animals that lived in ancient times. They are mostly ruins found in areas such as swamps with lakes and sea.

 After a living creature dies, it can turn into a fossil within billions of years. However, for this to happen, a suitable environment must be provided. This environment usually takes place by chance for fossilization. Thus, many different fossils such as bones, teeth and similar hard objects have been unearthed today. In fact, it continues to be mined in many different parts of the world.

Fossils are known as remains that shed light on millions of years ago. While most of the fossils discovered can be explained within the framework of logic, the secrets of some of them are still not resolved. Here are some of those fossils that the scientific world has not been able to solve..

1. ALH84001 (Mars bacteria fossil)

1. ALH84001 (Mars bacteria fossil)

There are countless science fiction stories depicting a possible life on the Red Planet Mars. Scientists are almost sure that there was life on Mars once upon a time. One of the greatest proofs of this is said to be the Mars meteorite ALH84001.

The tiny Mars meteorite ALH84001, which fell to Earth in 1984, is a very interesting example. Scientists investigating ALH84001 found an unusual situation in the meteorite. The 4.1 billion years old meteorite came to Earth from Mars. The ALH84001 meteorite is predicted to be launched into space as a result of a collision and then traveled through space and fell to Earth. What makes the ALH84001 meteorite even more interesting is that it resembles some kind of fossil. After the discovery, ALH84001 became the world’s most famous meteorite.

Although scientists who studied ALH84001 thought that the meteorite had bacteria on it, it was possible that this prediction may not be true after the studies. ALH84001 could be the remnant of minerals found on Mars years ago, or some kind of geological structure. Still, the mystery of the ALH84001 meteorite remains unsolved even today.

While the ALH84001 meteorite is likely to be the first concrete evidence that life might have once existed on other planets or satellites, the scientific world is yet to clarify this issue.

2. Homo Naledi

2. Homo Naledi
Ever since the first human fossil was discovered, scientists have generally focused on the small geographic regions where our ancestors were sure to find their fossils. However, this situation changed in 2015. Researchers discovered a new species in South Africa unlike any known human fossils and named it Homo Naledi. According to this discovery, Homo Naledi was a new human species. What makes Homo Naledi so different is that it is a transitional form feature between man and ape. Accordingly, Homo Naledi had both human and ape characteristics. The fossil found was 1 million years old. Thus it became clear that he lived before Homo Sapiens. But his body was also similar to the human species that appeared later. In this case, it was concluded that it became extinct later than the estimated date. 

The most interesting detail about Homo Naledi was detected in the behavioral trait analysis. All of the fossils were buried in tombs. This finding showed that he had a complex mindset. Later studies revealed that Homo Naledi’s burying the dead in the grave may not be related to any ritual.

With the discovery of Homo Naledi, some experts have raised the possibility that Homo sapiens may have encountered human forms with smaller brains. The secret of the Homo Naledi fossil cannot be fully explained even today.

3.The Tully Monster

3.The Tully Monster

The Tully Monster was first discovered in 1955 by collector Francis Tully. Paleontologists have tried to place the Tully Monster among known species classifications.

But it was not easy to classify. The Tully Monster, whose body resembles a squid, had no bones. Despite this, he was able to hold his body still like mollusks and worms. The head of the beast had a proboscis-like organ and a head at the end of this organ. Although the monster brings to mind butterflies with this feature, the last part of its head ends with teeth. As a matter of fact, the Tully Monster looked like a real life picture of a young child could draw.

Researchers could not decide under which species the Tully Monster would be classified. It could be some kind of squid, arthropod, or conodont. These classifications were also irrelevant from each other. Scientists, who investigated the beast a little more, finally found the primitive spinal cord. In this case, the Tully Monster was classified as a ‘primitive vertebrate animal’. Despite this, it cannot be explained where it stood in the history of evolution. 

4. Dinosaur fossil found in the Arctic

4. Dinosaur fossil found in the North Pole

We think that dinosaurs have always lived in torpical climates for some reason. Because all of the dinosaur fossils discovered are in the tropical climate zone. But scientists have discovered a new type of dinosaur fossil in Alaska.

The new dinosaur species called Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis was found to have lived in the frozen North 70 million years ago. However, with the discovery of the duck-billed dinosaur, numerous questions and claims were raised. Some scientists said this discovery should revisit everything known about dinosaurs. The discovery of giant polar reptiles has also strengthened the possibility that some dinosaurs could be warm-blooded animals. According to this, dinosaurs living in the Arctic region were capable of producing their own body heat. 

So how did Ugrunaaluk Kuukpikensis survive in such a cold and remote place from other relatives? If they migrated, what caused it? 

5.Klerksdorp Spheres

5. Klerksdorp K & uuml; rs

The Klerksdorp Spheres were first discovered in the Ottosdal region in Africa. Miners and geologists have thought a lot about what caused these spheres to form. Spherical shapes and metal structures made the work even more mysterious.

The Klerksdorp Spheres are usually located on the equatorial region. The oldest of the spheres is 3 million years old. Some consider these spheres to be leftovers from an ancient and highly developed civilization. It was thought that it was extremely impossible for spheres, which seemed perfectly perfect, to assume this shape by natural processes. Later, a story emerged in which NASA examined these spheres and that such a perfect shape could be achieved only in a zero gravity environment. This story was later denied by scientists.

Geologists have suggested that these spheres are forms that may have formed as a result of volcanic activity. Accordingly, some volcanic iron materials formed these spheres and the weather conditions gave the spheres their perfect shape. 

Conspiracy theorists suggested that the spheres were made by aliens. 

Ultimately, no group was able to fully explain their claims. What the Klerksdorp Spheres are is still a big secret today.

6. Godzillus

The Godzillus fossil found in Kentuck, USA is another discovery that remains a mystery. The Godzillus fossil, which looks very interesting with its egg-shaped shape, is thought to be 450 million years old. In this case, Godzillus is likely to be a kind of aquatic creature; because at that time the state of Kentuck was under water.

Putting the possibility of water in the pocket, the team started making predictions on the idea that Godzillus was a water creature. But its shape also resembled a cactus without thorns. Branches were also protruding from some parts of Godzillus.

The debate on whether Godzillus was a plant or an animal did not come to an end. 

7. Homo Floresiensis

7. Homo Floresiensis

Australian and Indonesian research teams discovered a new human species called Homo Floresiensis in 2003. After the discovery, it was investigated which human family they are closer to and their similarity with modern humans.

Homo Floresiensis was extremely small. Their height was around 90 cm. For this reason, researchers began to use the term Hobbit for Homo Floresiensis. 

Homo Floresiensis only existed on an island in Indonesia. They lived 18 thousand years ago, according to research. At that time, our ancestors, Homo Sapiens, were building the first building blocks of civilization. The fact that Homo Floresiensis lived at the same time as Homo Sapiens created differences of opinion among scientists. 

Some have suggested that Homo Floresiensis is not human. Others were of the opinion that it was none other than Homo Sapiens who settled in Indonesia. Accordingly, Homo Sapiens who migrated to Indonesia dwarfed here and became Homo Floresiensis. 

Despite all these claims, the veil of secret over Homo Floresiensis has not been eradicated even today.

8.The meteorite fossils of Chandra Wickramasinghe

8.Sandstone fossils of Chandra Wickramasinghe

Fossils don’t just come out of the ground. Some of them can also come from space! On December 29, 2012, it was alleged that a meteorite fell in the Southeast Asian country of Sri Lanka. We say it was proposed because the International Astronomical Union said there was no record of the meteorite fall. Still, the meteorite was under investigation. Famous mathematician Chandra Wickramasinghe suggested that the meteorite contains fossils.

Chandra Wickramasinghe and his team recorded that they discovered a single-cell algae diatom in the meteorite. Diatoms are known to withstand even extremely harsh conditions. Diatomist Patrick Kociolek has also confirmed the presence of diatoms in the meteorite. But Kociolek explained that these diatoms are just like the examples on Earth. After this announcement, the idea that the stone in question was not actually a meteorite gained weight.

Some scientists have suggested that the meteorite fell to Earth in the distant past. But no explanation has been made clear even today.

9.Conrad Skull

9.Conrad Skull

About 360 million years ago, the Earth entered the Paleozoic Age. In the Paleozoic Age most of the Earth was covered with carbon and swamp. During this period, life became more modern, plant species increased. However, no specimen of human fossils dating back to the period has been identified. Until Ed Conrad’s mysterious discovery.

Ed Conrad discovered a skull in his travel to Java in 1981. The skull, thought to belong to the prehistoric coal age, was thought to belong to the Paleozoic Age. Conrad and others thought the skullcap had the same features as the skull of modern humans. But there was no evidence that humans lived in the Paleozoic Age. The first known human species appeared 4.5 million years ago.

As a result of the researches on the skull, it was determined that it belongs to the Paleozoic Age and lived 280 million years ago. But the results were not accepted by the scientific world. Because there is a serious time difference between 4.5 million years and 280 million years ago. But a study conducted in Taiwan in 2011 proved that the skullcap belongs to the human race. Some have suggested that the skullcap may refute Darwin’s theory of evolution. The skull is a fossil whose mystery is still unsolved today.

10. Nampa Stone Doll

In 1889, in the US state of Idaho, miners found a human-shaped baby while digging in Nampa. The stone doll was buried 97 meters below the ground. Finding a stone doll at a depth of 97 meters was already an extremely interesting discovery.

The stone doll, which was determined to be 2 million years old, was unlikely to be made by humans because there was no evidence that there was a human community that lived in the area at that time. Homo Sapiens species had not yet taken its place in Earth’s history. Homo sapiens, a human species that can make tools, emerged 200,000 years ago. But who made this hand-sculpted doll was confused. The stone doll was made with a very skillful workmanship.

So how did the stone doll manage to get so deep into the ground? There are some theories on this subject, but it is a big secret who made the baby. Perhaps this baby could cause the rewriting of human history. But until a logical explanation comes, the Nampa Stone Doll takes its place among the unexplained.

11. UC Riverside’s mysterious rings

11. UC Riverside's mysterious rings

In 1986, scientists at the University of California discovered a mysterious rock in the Wisconsin area. The history of the rock stretched back to the time when the region was flooded. There were also very interesting drawings of rings on the rock. The researches did not yield any results and the mystery of the rock could not be solved.

12.Nevada giants

Paiute natives in the US state of Nevada tell the stories that a giant red-haired monster named Si-Te-Cah lived in the area thousands of years ago. Other indigenous groups in America are talking about similar stories. According to the story, all indigenous peoples gathered to defeat the giants and after the war won over the giants.

Western immigrants did not believe these stories and took them as legends. But the discovery made in Lovelock Cave in 1911 changed the whole understanding. People who examined the cave found that there were some man-made materials and the bones of a human-like creature. The possibility that these extremely large bones belonged to the giants described by the locals came to the fore. Handprint fossils were found with excavations. These fossils pointed to a creature larger than humans.

The most interesting aspect of the study is the bone samples found. These bones, larger than the human body, led to the idea that another species lived in the Lovelock Caves. The bones found are exhibited in a museum in the state today.

13. Late Permian mass extinction fossils

13. Permian end-of-moisture mass extinction fossils

We know that dinosaurs were destroyed by an asteroid hitting the Gulf of Mexico. But dinosaurs were not the only species to disappear. Our planet has witnessed mass extinction 5 times. The largest of these took place 252 million years ago at the end of the Permian Period.

95 percent of the Permian aquatic creatures and 75 percent of the terrestrial creatures disappeared in an instant. This situation can be described as terrifying.

But the interesting part is that there is no information about why such a mass extinction took place in the Permian Period. A large part of the living things suddenly disappeared for an unknown reason. While there are many theories that attempt to explain mass extinction, the most widely accepted theory is that global warming may have caused it.

According to the research conducted by geologist Gregory Retallack on fossils, living things died as a result of a sudden effect. This increases the possibility that a giant asteroid could have hit Earth. In addition, the possibility that coal and basalt found in Canada and Siberia could suddenly be released into the Earth’s atmosphere may have created mass deaths. 

Yet there is no logical explanation for the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian Period.

14. Alien skeleton found in the Atacama Desert

14. Alien skeleton found in Atacama

I think this is the most mysterious item on our list. According to the New York Times, a 15 cm skeleton was found in the late 1990s in an area of ​​Chile that was considered a ghost town. Found in the Atacama Desert, this skeleton was named Ata. Although the structure of the skeleton was human-like, it also had some oddities. It was claimed that the Ancestor skeleton, which separated from humans with features such as extremely large pupils, two missing ribs, and a pointed skull, could be an alien. 

But in 2018, scientists subjected the skeleton to DNA testing and revealed that it belongs to humans. Even more interesting results emerged with the discovery made by Stanford University researchers. According to this, Ata is a premature baby born after the 16th century and whose ancestors are European. 

But there are also some genetic mutations in the skeleton. Skeletal scientists with features such as dwarfism and scoliosis have also caused confusion among scientists. There were all 54 rare mutations in the ancestral skeleton. 

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