Diagrammatic Presentation of Data provides a right away understanding of the true state of affairs to be outlined by information compared to the tabular presentation of knowledge or textual representations. Diagrammatic presentation of knowledge interprets fairly successfully the extremely complicated concepts included in numbers into extra concrete and shortly comprehensible kind. Diagrams could also be much less sure however are far more environment friendly than tables in displaying the info. There are many sorts of diagrams normally use. Amongst them the numerous ones are the next:

(i) Geometric diagram
(ii) Frequency diagram
(iii) Arithmetic line graph

Also Check: Meaning and Objective of Tabulation

## Basics of Diagrammatic Presentation

Concept of Diagrammatic Presentation

• Diagrammatic presentation is a way of presenting numeric information by Pictograms, Cartograms, Bar Diagrams & Pie Diagrams and so forth. It is essentially the most engaging and interesting option to signify statistical information. Diagrams assist in visible comparability and have a chook’s eye view.
• Under Pictograms, we use footage to current information. For instance, if we’ve got to point out the manufacturing of vehicles, we are able to draw vehicles. Suppose, manufacturing of vehicles is 40,000. We can present it by an image having 4 vehicles, the place 1 Car represents 10,000 items.
• Under Cartograms, we make use of maps to point out the geographical allocation of sure issues.
• Bar Diagrams are rectangular in form positioned on the identical base. Their peak represents the magnitude/worth of the variable. Width of all of the bars and hole between the 2 bars is saved the identical.
• Pie Diagram is a Circle which is sub-divided or partitioned to point out the proportion of assorted parts of the info.
• Out of the above, solely One Dimensional Bar Diagrams and Pie Diagrams are in our scope.

General Guidelines

• Title – Every diagram should be given an appropriate ‘Title’ which must be small and self-explanatory.
• Size – Size of the diagram must be acceptable neither too small nor too large.
• Paper used – Diagrams are usually ready on clean paper.
• Scale – Under one-dimensional diagrams particularly ‘Bar Diagrams’ usually Y-axis is extra vital from the viewpoint of the choice of scale as a result of we signify magnitude alongside this axis.
• Index – When two or extra variables are introduced and several types of line/shading patterns are used to tell apart, then an index should be given to point out their particulars.
• Selection of Proper Type of Diagram – It’s essential to pick out the proper sort of diagram to signify information successfully.

(1) Diagrams Are Attractive and Impressive:

• Data introduced within the type of diagrams are in a position to entice the eye of even a typical man.

(2) Easy to Remember

• Diagrams have an incredible memorising impact.
• The image created in thoughts by diagrams final for much longer than these created by figures introduced by the tabular kind.

(3) Diagrams Save Time

• It presents complicated mass information in a simplified method.
• Data introduced within the type of diagrams may be understood by the consumer in a short time.

(4) Diagrams Simplify Data

• Diagrams are used to signify an enormous mass of complicated information in a simplified and intelligible kind, which is simple to grasp.

(5) Diagrams Are Useful in Making Comparisons

• It turns into simpler to check two units of knowledge visually by presenting them by diagrams.

• Diagrams not solely depict the traits of knowledge but in addition convey out different hidden info and relations which aren’t doable from the categorized and tabulated information.

### Types of One-dimensional Diagram:

One dimensional diagram is that diagram by which the one size of the diagram is taken into account. It may be drawn within the type of a line or in varied sorts of bars.

Following Are the Types of One-dimensional Diagram:

(1) Simple Bar Diagram

Simple Bar diagram includes of a gaggle of rectangular bars of equal width for every class or class of knowledge.

(2) Multiple Bar Diagram

This diagram is used when we’ve got to make a comparability between two or extra variables like earnings and expenditure, import and export for various years, marks obtained in several topics in several lessons, and so forth.

(3) Sub-divided Bar Diagram

This diagram is constructed by sub-dividing the bars within the ratio of assorted parts.

(4) Percentage Bar Diagram

Sub-divided bar diagram introduced on a share foundation is called Percentage Bar Diagram.

(5) Broken-scale Bar Diagram

This diagram is used when the worth of 1 remark may be very excessive as in comparison with the others.

In order to realize area for the smaller bars of the sequence, the biggest bars could also be damaged.

The worth of every bar is written on the prime of the bar.

(6) Deviation Bar Diagram

Deviation bars are used for representing web modifications in information like Net Profit, Net Loss, Net Exports, Net Imports, and so forth.

### Meaning of Pie Diagram:

A Pie Diagram is a circle divided into sections. The measurement of the part signifies the magnitude of every element as part of the entire.

Steps Involved in Constructing Pie Diagram

1. Convert the given values in share kind and multiply it with 3.6’ to get the quantity of angle for every merchandise.
2. Draw a circle and begin the diagram at 12’O clock place.
3. Take the very best angle first with protector (D) and mark decrease angles successively.
4. Shade totally different angles in another way to point out distinction in every merchandise.

### Solved Questions:

Q.1- Why Diagrammatic Presentation is Better Than Tabulation of Data?

ANS: It makes information extra engaging as in comparison with tabulation and helps in visible comparability.

Q.2- Why Media Persons Prefer Diagrammatic Presentation of Data?

ANS: Because it has ‘eye-catching effect’ and long-lasting influence upon its reader/viewers.

Q.3- What Will Be the Degree of an Angle within the Pie-diagram if a Family Spends 50% of Its Income on Food?

ANS: (50÷100) X 360 (Or) 50 x 3.6 = 180’

Q.4- Which Bar Diagram is Used to Show Two or More Characteristics of the Data?

ANS: Multiple bar diagram

Q.5-mention the Total of the Degrees of All the Angles Formed on the Centre of a Circle.

ANS: 360°

Q.6-name a Bar Diagram Where Height of All the Bars is the Same.

ANS: Percentage Bar Diagram

Q.7-which Diagram Can Be Used to Depict Various Components of a Variable?

ANS: Sub-Divided Bar Diagram

Q.8-What is a Multiple Bar Diagram?

ANS: Multiple Bar diagram is one which exhibits multiple attribute of knowledge.

Q.9-which Bar Diagram is Used to Represent Net Changes in Data?

ANS: Deviation Bar diagram.

Q.10-What is Another Name of Sub-divided Bar Diagram?

ANS: Component Bar Diagram.

The above-mentioned idea is for CBSE Class 11 Statistics for Economics – Diagrammatic Presentation of Data. For options and research supplies for Class 11 Statistics for Economics, go to BYJU’S or obtain the app for extra data and one of the best studying expertise.
Source

## Merit of good questionnaire

Use of questionnaire in area analysis affords the next benefits

1. The questionnaire has nice potentialities when it’s correctly used.

2. It is a cost-effective means of accumulating data of significance from worldwide marketer.

3. When the respondents are scattered far and huge, will probably be a greater software as in comparison with the instruments like interview or commentary. It permits even worldwide protection. It makes attainable contact with many who couldn’t in any other case be reached.

4. It permits group administration and is adaptable to any targets. It can cowl a big group on the identical time.

5. It is straightforward to plan, assemble and administer.

6. Once it has been constructed skilfully, the individual investigating the research might ask anyone to manage on his behalf.

7. It is mostly considered reliable when used to acquire statements of details.

8. Information of a private nature usually could also be obtained extra readily by way of questionnaires if replies of respondents are regarded confidential.

9. It locations much less strain on the topic for speedy response. He can reply it at leisure whereas interview and observations demand particular fixation of time and scenario.

10. It helps in focusing the respondent’s consideration on all the numerous gadgets. As it’s given in a written type, recording of response from the respondents ensures uniformity.

11. It could also be used as a preliminary software for conducting an in-depth research in a while by another methodology.

12. The responses given by the themes can be found in their very own language and variations.

## Disadvantages or Limitations of questionnaires

Questionnaires undergo from the next limitations:

1. Its reliability and validity are low. It offers secondary data when major proof is at hand.

2. Sometimes, questionnaires turn into merely a pooling of ignorance. It is compilation of the opinions of many individuals who might not know the right reply.

3. It offers a biased pattern. The matter of non-response is at all times a giant query mark.

4. The respondents who return the questionnaire might not represent a consultant part of your entire group. Some of the vital sections of the group might completely select to stay silent.

5. If the topic misinterprets a query or offers an incomplete response, nothing will be executed.

6. A questionnaire isn’t very useful to find details about advanced emotional topics.

7. Some respondents might not prefer to put their views on controversial points in writing. Such views will be drawn out solely by way of interviews.

8. The conduct, gestures, reactions, assertions and feelings of the respondents stay unnoticed.

9. Some individuals might not prefer to share data till they clearly perceive the trigger and function of the research. A questionnaire doesn’t present alternative for the individual conducting the research to develop rapport with the research teams.

10. If the realm of analysis is delicate or confidential in nature, designing questionnaire for such space is an hefty process.

11. It permits the respondents to change his solutions to earlier questions when he notices that he’s contradicting himself whereas answering some later questions.

12. The questionnaire can’t be used with illiterate topics and kids.

Source

## Merit of good questionnaire is

What do you imply by Questionnaire? Give deserves of a very good Questionnaire. – Sarthaks eConnect | Largest Online Education Community Source

## Diagrammatic representation of data

Let us make an in-depth research of the graphical illustration of statistical knowledge.

### Introduction:

Besides textual and tabular displays of statistical knowledge, the third and maybe essentially the most enticing and generally used common modem system to exhibit any knowledge in a scientific method is to signify them with appropriate and acceptable diagrams and photos.

The regular and efficient means on this context are: graphs, charts, photos, and so on. and they’re actually and certainly able to depicting some essential options of the information which they individually usually are not capable of exhibit. Selection of the suitable diagram really depends upon the character of the uncooked knowledge accessible and the aim or the realm wherein will probably be utilized. However, solely sure restricted data will be provided via a specific diagram and as such every diagram has sure particular limitations of its personal.

A couple of generally used diagrams utilized on totally different events in varied disciplines right now are the road diagram, bar diagram, ogive, pie dia­gram and the pictogram (as prescribed within the syllabus).

It could also be famous that diagrammatic represen­tations of statistical data is interesting to the eyes. Hidden information can also be detected as soon as such data are introduced graphically. Further, graphs of statistical knowledge clearly carry out the relative significance of various figures, the development or tendency of the values of the variables concerned will be studied too.

### Line Diagrams:

This type of a diagram turns into appropriate for representing knowledge provided chronologically in an ascending or descending order. Usually, it exhibits the behaviour of a variable over time. Successive values of a variable at totally different intervals or locations are plotted as separate factors on a two dimensional airplane and the locus of all these factors joined collectively type a steady line phase, referred to as line diagram.

While tracing out such a diagram, the standard conference is to point out the successive values of the variable below research alongside the vertical axis in an growing order and the time dimension alongside the horizontal axis. It ought to fastidiously be famous that not one of the two axes be too lengthy or too quick with respect to one another.

This could be very a lot mandatory primarily to keep away from unpredictable and vast fluctuations within the given values of the variable. The origin or the (0, 0) level on the left hand comer ought to clearly be talked about in order to discard improper impression on the method of drawing.

Two or extra (however finite variety of) line segments will also be drawn on the identical quadrant when data on totally different variables over the identical interval or time are concurrently represented utilizing the identical unit of measurement alongside the identical axis. We can thus draw various line- diagrams for various knowledge sequence on the identical quadrant.

They can distinctly and attractively be displayed on a display screen for presentation with varied vibrant traces. When the values of the variable into consideration change at a continuing charge over the identical successive time intervals, the diagram will take the form of a straight line. Other-wise, it’ll signify varied concave, convex or irregular curves when considered from the origin.

Let us now signify a standard line diagram under:

Example:

Line diagrams exhibiting whole values of Exports and Imports throughout 1987-96 have been introduced in Fig. 7.1. This determine has been drawn on the premise of information proven in Table 7.4.

Two separate line diagrams exhibiting fluctua­tions within the values of exports and imports of India throughout (1987—96) are proven under:

In the diagram drawn above the successive years from the desk are proven horizontally and the corresponding values of export and import are proven vertically and the factors are positioned individually on the airplane from the center of the respective years and the lacus of these factors exhibit the development alongside the road diagrams.

### Bar Diagrams:

It is one other well-known helpful statistical weapon to signify uncooked knowledge decently. This system is utilized specifically in a scenario the place the given knowledge will be categorised on the premise of a non- measurable criterion e.g., requirements of faculty training in several states of India these days.

This could be very usually referred to as cross-section knowledge. More exactly, a bar graph is fashioned as a set of rectangles having the identical width or breadth positioned successively at equal distance. Practically, the peak of every bar positioned vertically represents the worth of the variable on the an identical class interval proven horizontally.

Usually, these bars are positioned both vertically on the horizontal axis or horizontally on the vertical axis and they’re thus often known as vertical bar chart or horizontal bar chart. Conventionally vertical bar charts are fashioned with the time sequence knowledge.

Actually talking, no formal rule as to how a lot area to be given in between the 2 bars is there. If mandatory, no area in between two bars will be given. In another circumstances, appropriate and cheap gaps in-between two bars can also be allowed.

Let us imprint easy and appropriate examples of bar diagrams be­low:

#### (a) Simple Vertical Bar Diagram:

Volume of inhabitants in various states in India in 2001 is given under—represents the information with the help of vertical bars.

Fig. 7.2 Shows inhabitants of various 5 States in India in a specific yr (2001):

#### (b) Horizontal Bar Diagram:

Volume of manufacturing and revenue of 5 totally different organisations working below a specific trade with separate productive capacities are given under for the 2 successive years 2011 and 2012.

We signify the data via an excellent bar diagram. Here Fig. 7.3 is drawn under on the premise of Table 7.6. We have chosen this horizontal bar diagram to facilitate comparability of perfor­mances of 5 organisations for the years 2011 and 2012, respectively.

Horizontal bars present manufacturing (in hundreds) and revenue (Rs. thousand) of 5 organisations of India within the monetary yr 2011-12.

#### (c) Multiple or Component Bar Diagram

These diagrams are utilized in a scenario the place two or extra associated classes are to be in contrast concurrently.

Consider the next instance:

Labour employment and their percentages in 2000 and 2010 in a manufacturing facility is given under. Repre­despatched them by way of a number of or element bar diagrams.

Component bar diagrams present variety of labourers of various classes and their respec­tive percentages for the years 2000 and 2010.

### Pie Diagram:

It is one other efficient statistical system to signify quantitative knowledge obtainable on many events merely and diagrammatically. When the varied elements of the values of a variable possesses totally different properties then to precise the inherent relationship amongst them and likewise with the mixture worth of the variable, pie diagram probably is one of the best system.

Here, the mixture worth of the variable is expressed as the whole space of a circle with an inexpensive radius. The whole space within the circle is subdivided into various elements by a number of radii that are individually associated to the whole space of the circle and likewise keep the identical proportional relation with the angle on the centre.

For drawing it appropriately, we convert the actual given values of the variable as a percen­tage of the whole worth of the variable. As the angle on the centre is 360°, it’s supposed to precise 100 p.c. worth of the variable the place 1 p.c. worth of the variable is equal to an angle of three.6° on the centre.

We can thus simply convert the person given values of the variable into the required angles on the centre. Then we draw a whole circle taking any normal radius and put the angles discovered from the numerical train individually on the centre. Each separate half within the circle signifies a specific part of the information. Let us signify a easy pie diagram under constructed with the standard technique prescribed and adopted for its computation by changing the next data into that diagram.

Example:

Expenditure incurred by the Planning Commission of India on Education within the final 5-year financial plan.

Table 7.8(A): Educational Expenditure within the Last Five-year Economic Plan:

Let us first convert the given knowledge into respective percentages after which into the required angles to be proven on the centre in two extra co­lumns and signify them within the following manner:

Here, angle on the Centre = Percentage x 3.6.

Pie diagram drawn under on the premise of Table 7.8 (B) exhibits expenditure on training at varied phases within the final 5-year financial plan.

### Ogive or Cumulative Frequency Polygon:

An ogive is one other statistical device primarily used for locating out totally different quartiles in a distribution. From such a tool we are able to additionally establish the variety of observations mendacity above or under a sure worth of the involved variable.

This type of a diagram is drawn for a fre­quency distribution of a steady variable by way of cumulative frequencies of each the categories (greater than or lower than sort). While drawing this diagram we take into account the given values of the variable horizontally and the corresponding cumulative frequencies (of both sort) vertically.

Cumulative frequency of lower than sort is zero for the bottom given worth of the variable and equally cumulative frequency of larger than sort is zero for the very best worth of the variable thought of. Using the information accessible from a manufacturing organisation, Ogives of each the categories are drawn under for our prepared reference.

Ogives (of each the categories) drawn on the premise of the above knowledge and dedication of the median wage:

Here, being the middle-most worth of the given wage charges, the median wage is discovered OB (= Rs. 52) as a result of solely at this wage charge the 2 cumulative frequency curves intersect at level A representing two cumulative frequencies (less-than and greater-than) of each the categories precisely equal (AB = 25) with one another. Hence, the median wage is OB = Rs. 52.00. Source

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