The acids are compounds accept electrons or donate protons (H + ) in aqueous solutions and base are compounds that donate electrons, accept protons (H + ) or hydroxyl free ions (OH-) in aqueous solutions.

Here are examples of acids and bases in common use, know which are strong or weak acids and which bases are strong or weak.

30 examples of the most common acids

In our day to day we can find acidic substances in the home. Here are examples of acids with their formulas.

Examples of everyday acids

Many of the acids found in the home are part of the acids in foods, medicines, and cleaning products.

1. Acetic acid or ethanoic acid CH 3 COOH: it is the weak organic acid found in the vinegar that we use in salads.

2. Acetylsalicylic acid C 9 H 8 O 4 : it is the active principle of aspirin, a medicine that is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

3. Ascorbic acid C 6 H 8 O 6 : this is the common name for vitamin C, which is found in fruits and vitamin supplements and which is involved in healing and collagen synthesis.

4. Boric Acid H 3 BO 3 is a weak acid that is used as an insecticide, antiseptic, and flame retardant.

5. Butyric acid CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -COOH or butanoic acid is the fatty acid present in butter.

6. Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3 is the acid found in soft drinks.

7. Citric acid C 6 H 8 O 7 is an organic acid present in some fruits and an intermediary of cellular metabolism. The IUPAC name for citric acid is 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid.

8. Clavulanic acid C 8 H 9 NO 5 is a drug that is used in combination with antibiotics from the penicillin family. Its effect is to block the bacterial enzymes that destroy the antibiotic.

9. Folic acid C 19 H 19 N 7 O 6 is an organic acid that is found in the leaves of vegetables and is required in the synthesis of nucleic acids. The IUPAC name for folic acid is (2S) -2 – [(4 – {[(2-amino-4-hydroxypteridin-6-yl-) methyl] amino} phenyl) formamido] pentanedioic acid.

10. Hyaluronic acid C 33 H 54 N 2 O 23 is a derivative of glucose, a glycosaminoglycan, found in connective tissues. It is used in skin creams.

11. Oleic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH = CH (CH 2 ) 7 COOH is a fatty acid present in animal and vegetable fats, especially olive oil.

12. Oxalic acid C 2 H 2 O 4 or ethanedioic acid is a dicarboxylic acid found in spinach leaves.

13. Uric acid C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3 is a diprotic acid product of nucleic acid metabolism. Its excess in the blood is known as hyperuricemia.

14. Tartaric acid HOOC-CHOH-CHOH-COOH or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid is found in fruits such as grapes and bananas. It is used in cooking to regulate the acidity of food.

Examples of acidic substances in chemistry and biology

15. Arachidonic acid C 20 H 32 O 2 or eicosatetraenoic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid found in cell membranes and is the precursor of prostaglandins.

16. Lactic acid H 3 C-COH-COOH is a weak organic acid product of glucose metabolism by lactobacteria, to produce yogurt.

17. Retinoic acid C 20 H 28 O 2 is an acid product of the metabolism of vitamin A.

18. Linoleic acid C 18 H 32 O 2 is an unsaturated fatty acid from which arachidonic acid is synthesized. It is found in walnuts and flaxseed.

19. Glutamic acid HOOC-CH (NH 2 ) – (CH 2 ) 2 -COOH is an acidic amino acid that is part of proteins.

20. Aspartic acid HOOC-CH 2 -CH (NH 2 ) -COOH is an acidic amino acid that is part of proteins.

21. Hydrogen sulfate H 2 S is a volatile acid that is produced by the metabolism of bacteria under anaerobic conditions and also occurs in volcanic gases.

22. Ribonucleic acid RNA is a biological macromolecule that participates in the transmission of genetic information to synthesize proteins. Its acidic character is given by the phosphate groups found in the chain.

23. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a nucleic acid, the molecule that contains the genetic information of cells.

Examples of strong acids

Strong acids are those compounds that ionize completely, that is, they donate their proton completely to form an anion or negative ion.

24. Hydrochloric acid HCl.

25. Chloric acid HClO 3

26. Perchloric acid HClO 4

27. Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 : used in batteries.

28. Hydrofluoric acid HF.

29. Nitric acid HNO 3 .

30. Hydrobromic acid HBr.

30 examples of the most common bases

Examples of everyday bases

In the home we use bases and other alkaline substances for different purposes. Let’s see some examples.

1. Acetone or propanone H 3 (CO) CH 3 behaves as a base since it donates electrons. It is used in the home as a solvent and in cleaning.

2. Ammonia NH , used to clean ovens.

3. Caffeine C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 is a weak base stimulant of the central nervous system, found in coffee, tea and some stimulating drinks.

4. Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH) 3 is a base used in medicines to relieve heartburn by reacting with HCl in the stomach.

5. Magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 is a base used in antacids.

6. Bicarbonate ion HCO  is the conjugate base of carbonic acid. It is used in the home for cleaning and in the kitchen as an ingredient in baking powder.

7. Tartrate ion C 4 H 4 O 2- is the conjugate base of tartaric acid. It is used as an antioxidant additive in the food industry and is part of cream of tartar.

8. Urea H 2 N (CO) NH 2 or carbamide is a weak base found in urine.

Examples of bases in chemistry and biology

9. Adenine C 5 H 5 N 5 is a base derived from purine that is part of DNA and RNA.

10. Aniline C 6 H 5 NH 2 is an aromatic amine, a weak base that is used as a precursor to paracetamol and synthetic dyes such as indigo.

11. Arginine C 6 H 14 N 4 O 2 is a basic amino acid that is part of proteins.

12. Lysine H 2 N (CH 2 ) 4 CH (NH 2 ) COOH is a basic amino acid that is part of proteins.

13. Pyridine C 5 H 5 N is a heterocyclic base, used as an alkaline solvent and as an insecticide precursor.

14. Purine C 5 H 4 N 4 is a basic organic compound that is found in large quantities in red meat.

15. Thymine C 3 H 6 N 2 O 2 is a nitrogenous base that is part of deoxyribonucleic acid.

16. Cytosine C 4 H 5 N 3 O is a nitrogenous base derived from pyrimidine that is part of DNA and RNA.

17. Guanine C 5 H 5 N 5 O is a nitrogenous base derived from purine that is part of nucleic acids.

18. Uracil C 4 H 4 N 2 O 2 is a nitrogenous base derived from pyrimidine found in RNA.

Examples of strong bases

Strong bases are those that ionize easily. The strongest bases are those that form with the alkali and alkaline earth metals.

19. Lithium hydroxide LiOH.

20. Sodium hydroxide NaOH.

21. Potassium hydroxide KOH.

22. Ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH.

23. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH) 2 .

24. Barium hydroxide Ba (OH) 2 .

25. Beryllium hydroxide Be (OH) 2 .

26. Strontium hydroxide Sr (OH) 2 .

27. Zinc hydroxide Zn (OH) 2 .

28. Iron II hydroxide Fe (OH) 2 .

29. Iron III hydroxide Fe (OH) 3 .

30. Sodium methoxide CH 3 O  Na + .

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