The Bank of Spain has analyzed the access facilities that Spaniards have, depending on their area of residence, to the cash infrastructure, mainly ATMs, in order to obtain cash near their homes. His conclusion is that 1.3 million Spaniards, a 3, 75% on a population of 47,39 millions, “are in a situation that can be considered vulnerable.”
The study, prepared by Diana Posada Restrepo of the General Directorate of Cash and Branches of the regulatory body, with data from the end of last year, determines that a greater reduction and / or concentration of cash infrastructures increases the gap among those who find it difficult to access cash and those who have easy access to it.
Vulnerability index In addition, the author has analyzed whether the distribution of this infrastructure adequately covers the demand for cash based on the sociodemographic characteristics of the different regions. To this end, a vulnerability index in access to cash is presented, which allows detecting those municipalities with a greater risk of being financially excluded in terms of access to cash.
The report points out that the Cash infrastructure coverage degree is defined as the percentage of the population with at least one access point within a certain distance radius. For the study, two different radii of 5 km (in the attached map) and of 08 km. The distance to the access point is measured in a straight line from the center of the population center.
The report concludes that there are large differences by province, with Zamora as the worst stop. On average, 98% of the population has a cash access point within a 5 km radius , although it is not located in its municipality.
Only six provinces (among which are Vizcaya, Tenerife or Cádiz) and in the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla on 100% of the inhabitants have a bank office or an ATM within a 5 km radius, in others 10 provinces this percentage is between the 85% and the 99%, and in eight provinces it is lower than 90%.
Castilla y León is the autonomous community with the least extensive coverage, with Zamora and Ávila as the provinces with the lowest population ratios with a traditional point of access to cash within a radius of 5 km, the 81% and the 85%, respectively. The author explains this difference with respect to other Spanish provinces due to their lower population density, the orography of the territory, which have meant that the coverage of the network of offices and ATMs in these areas of the country has been less and there has been to be compensated, in part, by alternative solutions, such as financial agents or mobile offices. To this must be added the bank consolidation process in recent years, which has intensified a situation whose starting point was already less favorable.
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